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´╗┐Petroleum Geology of the Western Weald and South Downs

This particular webpage is an intermediate introduction to the petroleum geology, especially the oil shales of the western to central Weald. It is not a research study and is in conventional geological language, easily ready by non specialists. It is in progress and will be enlarged progressively. It is important to stress that there is are important BGS publications on the Weald and its oil resources. See particularly the recent, quantitative account by the British Geological Survey, which is available free online. The major publication, discussed further below is freely available. It is a large report and in several parts, including extensive Appendices.

[The main volume is in normal geological language and requires no technical knowledge beyond a passing aquaintance with Rock Eval Analysis, TOC and Vitrinite Reflectance. The reader should have at least one degree in geology but this main report does not need a specialist knowledge of petroleum geology. It is suitable for the general geological public (except possibly the statistics). Non geologists might find the text and diagrams heavy going, but can obtain valuable conclusions from it, without difficulty.

Parts of the the Appendices, referred to below, are not so simple and require some understanding of various equations and conversions. A higher degree in petroleum geology or equivalent experience is perhaps a better qualification for the "´╗┐Anadrol 50" reader of this part. The general public are unlikely to read the Appendices.

Summary of the main report: The Jurassic Shales of the Weald Basin report: geology and shale oil and shale gas resource estimation. Page 1 et seq.

Following the publication of shale gas resource estimates for the Carboniferous Bowland Hodder shales (Andrews 2013), this report is the second to address the potential distribution and in place resources of unconventional oil and gas contained in the shales beneath the UK. It summarises the background geological knowledge and methodology that have enabled a preliminary in place oil resource calculation to be undertaken for the Weald Basin and adjacent areas in southern Britain (Figure 1). No significant shale gas resource is recognised in the Jurassic of the Weald Basin.

Marine shales were deposited in the Weald Basin at several intervals during the Jurassic (c. 145 200 Ma). The basin is composed of several fault controlled sub basins, which form part of a wider basin that extended into northern France. It is geologically distinct from the Wessex Basin which lies to the southwest, outside of the study area.

Five units within the Jurassic of the Weald Basin contain organic rich, marine shale: the Mid and Upper Lias Clays (Lower Jurassic) and the Oxford Clay, Corallian Clay and Kimmeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic). These attain gross shale thicknesses of up to 300 ft. Deca Durabolin And Test Cypionate Cycle ( 90 m.), 220 ft. (67 m.), 500 ft. (150 m.), 260 ft. (80 m.) and 1,800 ft (550 m.) respectively in the Weald Basin depocentre, and they contain varying amounts of organic matter. "Achat Anabolisant Belgique" Coventional oil and gas fields in the basin attest to "Anaboliset Aineet" the capability of some of these units to produce hydrocarbons. It is possible that oil could have been generated from any or all of the five shales, but in the current "Anaboliset Aineet" model even the deepest Jurassic unit is not considered to have been sufficiently buried to have generated significant amounts of gas. Some gas has been generated in association with oil and shallow biogenic gas may also be present.

Organic rich shales occur at two levels in the Lias (Lower Jurassic) of the Weald; these have direct equivalents in the Paris Basin, although in the Weald they fail to Anavar Y Primobolan En Mujeres reach the richness found in France. In a third Lias unit, the Blue Lias (Lower Lias), total organic carbon (TOC) reaches 8% further west in the shales of the Wessex Basin, where it sources the Wytch Farm oilfield, but organic carbon contents are typically well below 2% in the equivalent limestones and shales of the study area. This contrast in organic content may result from differences in palaeogeography and organic input or preservation between the basins. The most significant organic rich shales in the Weald Basin occur in the lowermost Oxford Clay (TOC up to 7.8%) and middle Deca Durabolin Subcutaneous Kimmeridge Clay (TOC up to 21.3%) and these represent potential ''sweet spots'' worthy of further investigation. much of the "oil" may be physically associated with kerogen, rather than present in pore space. This is low in comparison to shale oil producing areas in North America, so it may be tha only limited amounts of shale within the Jurassic of the Weald Basin have any potential to produce oil in commercial quantities. However, after correcting fro the evaporation of light hydrocarbons since the sample was taken, it may be that some horizons within the Mid and Upper Lias, lower Oxford Clay and Kimmeridge Clay exceed the 100 required for the oil to be ''producible''. Also the fact that oil has migrated inot conventional reservoirs suggests that optimum conditions are reached at least locally within the basin. Interpreting the presence of producible oil in the organic rich shales allows for an in place resource volume to be calculated wth a broad range of probabilities.

The maturity of the shales is a function of burial depth, heat flow and time. In this study, the Jurassic shales are considered mature for oil generation (vitrinite reflectance, Ro values between 0.6% and 1.1%) at depths between approximately 7,000 8,000 ft. (2130m. 2440m.) and 12,000 13,000 ft. (3660m. 3960m.)(where there has been minimal uplift). However, southern Britain experienced a phase of significant uplift in Cenozoic times, due to basin inversion, that has raised the mature shales by up to 6,750 ft (2060m.) to shallower present day depths than would otherwise be expected. Howver, even the Lias shales are unlikely to have attained sufficient maturity to allow for significant gas generation. Barnett, Woodford and Tuscaloosa). the Bakken oil system). The oil resources potentially present in these plays are not included in the in place oil volumes in this report.

The total volume of potentially productive shale in the Weald Basin was estimated using a 3D geological model generated using seismic mapping, integrated with borehole information. This gross volume was then reduced to a net mature organic rich shale volumen using a maximum, pre uplift burial depth corresponding to a vitrinite reflectance cut "buy cheap jintropin online" off of 0.6% (modelled at 7,000 ft./ 2130m., and 8,000 ft/ 2440m. The volume was further truncated upwards at two alternative levels firstly at a depth of c. 3,300 ft. (1000m.) (as proposed by USEIA 2013) and secondly at a depth of c. 5,000 ft. (1,500m.) below land surface (as proposed by Charpentier and Cook, 2011 for shale gas). This is a regionally applied cut off; the depth to which shale oil (or shale gas) productivity because an issue in terms of pressure and hydrogeology will need to be addressed locally.

The volumes of potentially productive shale and average oil yields were used as the input parameters for a statistical calculation (using a Monte Carlo simulation) of the in place oil resource (see Appendix A). Two scenarios were modelled for each shale unit (Table 1).

[Table 1 follows, but it is not shown here. See the original.]

[Most optimistic estimate for the Kimmeridge Clay is 4.77 billion barrels using top of oil window at 7,000 ft. (2130m) or a much lower figure of 1.44 billion barrels using top of oil window at 8,000 ft. (2440 m) maximum burial depth. These figures are remarkably different.

The Mid Liassic Clay figures for most optimistic estimates is fairly uniform with 1.43 and 1.15 billion barrels. There is obviously much uncertainly about the Kimmeridge Clay.

Figures for all Jurassic clay are 2.2 4.4 8.6 billion barrels, with the last figure being the most optimistic.]

This study offers a range of total in place oil resource estimates for the various Jurassic shales of the Weald Basin of 2.2 4.4 8.6 billion bbl 0.29 0.59 1.14 billion tonnes) (P90 P50 P10) (Table 1). It should be emphasised that these ''oil in place'' figures refer to an estimate for the entire volume of oil contained in the rock formation, not how much can be recovered. It is still too early to use a more refined methodology, like the USGS''s Technically Recoverable Resource "top down" estimates, which require production data from wells. In time, the drilling and testing of new wells will give an understanding of achievable, sustained production rates. The combined with other non geological factors such as oil price, operating costs and the scale of development agreed by the local planning system, will allow estimates of the UK''s producible oil reserves to be made.

There is a high degree of uncertainty in these figures. Indeed, there is a chance that there may be little or no ''free oil'', given that the ''oil saturation index'' is considerably less than 100 (see Jarvie 2012b) and what oil there is could be located entirely within the kerogen particles and would heating/retorting to extract it. In these circumstances, the resource could no longer be categorised in terms of ''shale oil''. The potential for hybrid plays in which oil might have migrated into tight reservoirs adjacent to mature shale is acknowledged, but the potential volumes of oil trapped in such plays in not addressed in this report.

Introduction to shale gas, shale oil and resource estimation:

Shales have long been recognised as the source rocks from which most oil has been generated. This mechanism allows for a proportion of the generated oil and gas to be expelled and to migrate into conventional reservoirs over geological time. The fact that some hydrocarbons, particularly oil, are retained in the fine grained lithologies has now taken on a new significance. heated to >350 degrees C) to extract it. This is the basic distinction between shale oil and oil shale (see Section 2.2 below).

The terms ''shale oil'' and ''oil shale'' are both applied to organic rich source rocks, but the hydrocarbons are present in very different scenarios. Shale oil is mature and can be found in association with shale gas plays if the source rocks have been buried to sufficient depths. On the other hand, oil shale is immature and can either be mined at or near the surface or retorted in situ at depth. Such oil shale extraction techniques make it very unlikley that it might be exploited at depth in the Weald Basin. and McCormac, M. 2014. Appendix A to F:

The Jurassic Shales of the Weald Basin: Geology and Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resource Estimation. DECC 2014. Appendix A: Estimation of the total in place oil resource in Jurassic shales.

Example text from the Introduction.

"The aim of this study is to estimate the P90 P50 P101

This analysis forms an appendix to the main Weald report, which provides the detailed geological background to this shale oil play. This specific study applies a Monte Carlo simulation to a suite of input parameters, some of which come from the geology based methodology described in the main report, and others which are based on information from published analogues. range of potential total oil in place volumes

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